When HIV and TB coexist: Digging into the roots of IRIS

Millions of people worldwide suffer from co-infection with tuberculosis (TB) and HIV. While prompt antibiotic and antiretroviral treatment can be a recipe for survival, over the years, physicians have noticed something: two or three weeks after starting antiretrovirals, about 30 percent of co-infected patients get worse.

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Can breast cancer cells tell each other to metastasize?

Not all cancer cells are created equal. In fact, to call a cancer a cancer, in the singular, is something of a misnomer. Really, a patient could be said to have cancers, as every tumor is actually a mixture of cells with different mutations and capabilities. One of those capabilities is the ability to escape the main tumor and spread, or metastasize, to other sites in the body.

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A simpler way to measure complex biochemical interactions

Life teems with interactions. Proteins bind. Bonds form between atoms, and break. Enzymes cut. Drugs attach to cell receptors. DNA hybridizes. Those interactions make the processes of life work, and capturing them has led to many medical advances.

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On the hunt for gene editing's collateral damage

Labs the world over are jumping on the gene editing bandwagon. But one question keeps coming up: How precise are these systems? After all, a method that selectively mutates, deletes or swaps specific gene sequences is only as good as its accuracy.

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Shedding light on AID off-targeting and lymphoma

Researchers in the laboratory of Frederick Alt have identified a relationship between sites of convergent gene transcription, the presence of intragenic super-enhancers, and the mis-targeting of the mutagenic activity of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID).

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A promising strategy against HIV


Harvard researchers genetically ‘edit’ human blood stem cells

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Removing roadblocks to therapeutic cloning to produce stem cells

To help find barriers associated with a cloning technique called somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), Drs. Yi Zhang and Shogo Matoba generated mouse embryos through either SCNT or IVF and compared their gene expression profiles at the very early stages of development.

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1 in 20,000: Identifying hematopoietic stem cells in bone marrow

Roi Gazit, Pankaj Mandal and Derrick Rossi have engineered a hematopoietic stem cell specific reporter mouse that permits facile detection of rare blood forming stem cells based on single color fluorescence.

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DNA damage repair is attenuated in quiescent hematopoietic stem cells, contributing to age-dependent DNA damage accumulation

Without active DNA repair, damage beyond strand breaks could accumulate, giving rise to mutations leading to age-related blood disorders.

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Cytotoxic Cells Kill Intracellular Bacteria through Granulysin-Mediated Delivery of Granzymes

Michael Walch, Farokh Dotiwala and Judy Lieberman unveil a new role for killer cells in bacterial defense. In a recent Cell paper they show that granulysin, an antimicrobial protein present in the cytotoxic granules of human killer lymphocytes, delivers death-inducing granzymes into bacteria, where they rapidly kill bacteria and limit the spread of infection.

Scientists turn back the clock on blood cells, reprogram them into blood stem cells

Induced hematopoietic stem cells, or iHSCs, bear characteristic features of natural HSCs, represent milestone in regenerative medicine

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Drawing a ring around antiviral immunity

Ubiquitin doesn't just tag proteins for recycling. It also may help keep our antiviral immune response in balance.

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Featured News Story

When HIV and TB coexist: Digging into the roots of IRIS

When HIV and TB coexist: Digging into the roots of IRIS

 

Millions of people worldwide suffer from co-infection with tuberculosis (TB) and HIV. While prompt antibiotic and antiretroviral treatment can be a recipe for survival, over the years, physicians have noticed something: two or three weeks after starting antiretrovirals, about 30 percent of co-infected patients get worse.

The reason: immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome, or IRIS. Doctors think it represents a kind of immune rebound. As the antiretrovirals start to work, and the patient's immune system begins to recover from HIV, it notices TB's presence and overreacts.

"It's as though the immune system was blanketed and then unleashed," says Luke Jasenosky, PhD, a postdoctoral fellow with Anne Goldfeld, MD, of Boston Children's Hospital's Program in Cellular and Molecular Medicine. "It then says, ‘I can start to see things again, and there are a lot of bacteria in here.'"

Though potentially severe, even fatal, IRIS… Read More »

Announcements

Dr. Heng Ru was awarded the Cancer Research Institute Irvington Postdoctoral Fellowship.

Dr. Heng Ru was awarded the Cancer Research Institute…

Dr. Heng Ru, a postdoctoral fellow in the Wu lab, was recently awarded the Cancer Research Institute Irvington Postdoctoral Fellowship. During the three-year fellowship,… Read More »

Sun Hur was awarded the 2015 Vilcek Prize for Creative Promise in Biomedical Science

Sun Hur was awarded the 2015 Vilcek Prize for Creative…

Sun Hur Ph.D was awarded the 2015 Vilcek Prize for Creative Promise in Biomedical Science. The Vilcek Prizes for Creative Promise were established in 2009 to encourage and support young immigrants who… Read More »

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